1.Learners are historically and sociologically situated active agents, not just information processing machines.
2.Learning is about more than the acquistion of linguistic forms; it is about learners actively developing and engaging in ways of mediating themselves and their relationship to others in communities of practice.
3.Non-participation – a process of reactive resistance to attempts by target community members to marginalize the learner; or a passive process of acceptance of marginalisation by target community members.
4.Agency is always co-constructed via interaction with other agents.
5.Learning is part of the ongoing construction of self-identity (Giddens 1991) and the consequent ongoing construction of a personal narrative.
(Lantolf and Pavlenko, 2001 – cit. en Block, 2011, 109-110)